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Cisco Security Advisory: Default Passwords in the Application Velocity System



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Cisco Security Advisory: Default Passwords in the Application Velocity
System

Advisory ID: cisco-sa-20080123-avs

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080123-avs.shtml

Revision 1.0

For Public Release 2008 January 23 1600 UTC (GMT)

+---------------------------------------------------------------------

Summary
=======

Versions of the Cisco Application Velocity System (AVS) prior to
software version AVS 5.1.0 do not prompt users to modify system account
passwords during the initial configuration process. Because there is no
requirement to change these credentials during the initial configuration
process, an attacker may be able to leverage the accounts that have
default credentials, some of which have root privileges, to take full
administrative control of the AVS system.

After upgrading to software version AVS 5.1.0, users will be prompted to
modify these credentials.

Cisco will make free upgrade software available to address this
vulnerability for affected customers. The software upgrade will
be applicable only for the AVS 3120, 3180, and 3180A systems. The
workaround identified in this document describes how to change the
passwords in current releases of software for the AVS 3110.

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) identifier CVE-2008-0029 has
been assigned to this vulnerability.

This advisory is posted at
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080123-avs.shtml.

Affected Products
=================

Vulnerable Products
+------------------

This vulnerability affects the Cisco AVS 3110, 3120, 3180, and 3180A
Management Station appliances that are running software versions prior
to AVS 5.1.0. Administrators can determine the software version of the
AVS appliances by logging in to the Management Station web-based user
interface or from the command-line interface (CLI) of the appliance
operating system.

Customers who use the AVS 3180 or 3180A Management Station can determine
their node software versions by navigating to the Cluster Information
Page. Each registered node will display the corresponding software
version when the node is selected.

The AVS appliance version can also be determined from the host operating
system by using the "Show Version" command.

The following example shows "Show Version" output for an AVS 3120
appliance that is running version 5.1.0:

    velocity>Show Version

    ****************************************
    Cisco Application Velocity System,(AVS)
    ----------------------------------------
    AVS 3120-K9 005.001(000.034)
    ****************************************

The following example shows "Show Version" output for an AVS 3180 or
3180A appliance that is running version 5.1.0:

    velocity>Show Version

    ****************************************
    Cisco Application Velocity System,(AVS)
    ----------------------------------------
    AVS 3180-MGMT 005.001(000.034)
    ****************************************

Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable
+--------------------------------

No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by this
vulnerability.

Details
=======

The Cisco AVS 3110 and 3120 are enterprise data center appliances for
improving web application performance, measuring end-user response
time, and managing application security. The Cisco AVS 3120 enforces
application security with an integrated web application firewall. The
Cisco AVS 3180 and 3180A Management Stations provide web-based tools for
the configuration and application performance monitoring for a cluster
of AVS 3110s and 3120s or individual nodes.

The Cisco AVS 3110, 3120, 3180, and 3180A Management Stations use some
system accounts that are initially configured with default passwords.
Vulnerable versions of the AVS software do not prompt the administrator
to change the passwords for these accounts, including accounts with root
privileges, during the initial configuration process. Non-vulnerable
versions of AVS software will now prompt administrators to change these
accounts after installation.

Note: If the passwords for the AVS 3110 or 3120 are changed on the
device itself and it has previously been registered with an AVS 3180
or 3180A Management Station, the node must be re-registered with the
Management Station console. Otherwise, communication between the AVS
3180 or 3180A Management Station and AVS 3110 or 3120 node will be lost.

For additional details about the AVS node registration process, refer to
the "Register Node" section of the Cisco AVS User's Guide.

After upgrading the appliance software to version AVS 5.1.0 and logging
in for the first time, the administrator will now be prompted to change
the system account passwords.

The following example shows the new password change prompts and the
subsequent password change dialog for the AVS 3120 after upgrade:

    velocity login: fgn
    Password:
    **WARNING** System wide secrets are in factory default state.
    Would you like to change these now? [y/n] y changing root password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing fgn password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing DB password
    enter password:
    enter password again:

    Please wait...The DB password change will take a few minutes.
    changing node manager password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing condenser password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing console password
    enter password:
    enter password again:

The following example shows the new password change prompts and the
subsequent password change dialog for the AVS 3180 and 3180A after
upgrade:

    velocity login: fgn
    Password:
    **WARNING** System wide secrets are in factory default state.
    Would you like to change these now? [y/n] y changing root password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing fgn password
    enter password:
    enter password again:
    changing DB password
    enter password:
    enter password again:

    Please wait...The DB password change will take a few minutes.
    changing console password
    enter password:
    enter password again:

This issue is documented in Cisco Bug ID CSCsd94732.

Vulnerability Scoring Details
+----------------------------

Cisco has provided scores for the vulnerabilities in this advisory based
on the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). The CVSS scoring in
this Security Advisory is done in accordance with CVSS version 2.0.

CVSS is a standards-based scoring method that conveys vulnerability
severity and helps determine urgency and priority of response.

Cisco has provided a base and temporal score. Customers can then
compute environmental scores to assist in determining the impact of the
vulnerability in individual networks.

Cisco has provided an FAQ to answer additional questions regarding CVSS
at

http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/cvss-qandas.html.

Cisco has also provided a CVSS calculator to help compute the
environmental impact for individual networks at

http://intellishield.cisco.com/security/alertmanager/cvss.

* AVS Default Account Passwords Don't Require Change (CSCsd94732)

CVSS Base Score - 10.0
    Access Vector -            Network
    Access Complexity -        Low
    Authentication -           None
    Confidentiality Impact -   Complete
    Integrity Impact -         Complete
    Availability Impact -      Complete

CVSS Temporal Score - 8.3
    Exploitability -           Functional
    Remediation Level -        Official-Fix
    Report Confidence -        Confirmed

Impact
======

Successful exploitation of the vulnerability may result in full
administrative control of the Cisco AVS system or user-level access to
the host operating system.

Software Versions and Fixes
===========================

When considering software upgrades, also consult
http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and any subsequent advisories to determine
exposure and a complete upgrade solution.

In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain the
devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current
hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported
properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, contact
the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) or your contracted
maintenance provider for assistance.

AVS software version 5.1.0 contains the fix for the vulnerability
described in this document.

AVS software is available for download from the following locations on
cisco.com:

  * AVS 3120 5.1.0 (http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/AVS3120-5.1)
  * AVS 3180 5.1.0 (http://www.cisco.com/pcgi-bin/tablebuild.pl/AVS3180-5.1)

Workarounds
===========

The following workarounds are applicable only for the AVS 3110 and are
performed on the system shell. The AVS 3110 does not have a CLI. The use
of strong passwords is encouraged.

Changing the Root Password
+-------------------------

Complete these steps:

 1. Change the root password by using the following command:

        shell# passwd


 2. Reboot to activate the new settings by using the following command:

        shell# reboot

Changing the Management Console Username and Password
+----------------------------------------------------

Complete these steps:

 1. Open the following file in a text editor:

    $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/deploy/
    fgconsole.war/users.properties

    Use the line admin=admin to set the username and password. The
    username appears before the equal sign (=) and the password appears
    after the equal sign (=). For example, to change the username to
    Cisco and the password to accelerate, change the admin=admin line
    to Cisco=accelerate.

 2. If you change the username, you must also change this file:

    $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/deploy/
    fgconsole.war/roles.properties

    The username is set by the line that contains admin=. The username
    appears before the equal sign (=). For example, to change the user
    name to Cisco, change the admin= line to Cisco=. Do not change the
    text after the equal sign (=) in this file; this field specifies
    the account privileges. The username that you enter here must match
    the one in the users.properties file in the preceding step.

Changing the Database Username and Password
+------------------------------------------

There are two steps required to change the database password:

 1. First change the database password.
 2. Then update the Management Console configuration file with the new
    database password.

Complete these steps:

 1. Log in to the database using the old password, and then use the
    alter SQL command to change to the new password.

        /usr/local/fineground/console/postgres/bin/psql
                         -U fineground -p 5432 fgnlog Password : <old password>
        Welcome to psql 7.3.4, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.

        Type:  \copyright for distribution terms
               \h for help with SQL commands
               \? for help on internal slash commands
               \g or terminate with semicolon to execute query
               \q to quit
        fgnlog=# alter user fineground password '<new password>'; \q

 2. The username and password to access the Management Console database
    are set during the Management Console installation process. If you
    want to change these later, you can modify an XML configuration
    file that the Management Console server reads at start-up.

     a. Open the following file in a text editor:

        $AVS_HOME/console/jboss-3.0.1_tomcat-4.0.4/server/default/
        deploy/postgres-service.xml

        Look for the following section in this file:

            <!--set these only if you want only default logins,
                               not through JAAS -->
            <config-property name="UserName" type="java.lang.String">fineground</config-property>
            <config-property name="Password" type="java.lang.String">condenser</config-property>

     b. To change the username, change the value for the UserName
        configuration property (fineground in this example).

     c. To change the password, change the value for the Password
        configuration property (condenser in this example).

     d. Save and close the file.

Changing the Node Manager Password
+---------------------------------

Complete these steps:

 1. Log in as fgn, and then use the su command to switch to the
    superuser.

 2. Stop the Condenser and Node Manager:

        /etc/init.d/fgnpn<Tab> stop

    Press Tab to have the interface complete the command.

 3. Go to the $AVS_HOME/perfnode/node_manager/conf directory.

 4. Back up the file named passwords.

 5. Change the password with the following command:

        $AVS_HOME/perfnode/bin/htpasswd -bcm passwords.new admin <password>

    In the preceding command, passwords.new is the name of the file in
    which the passwords are stored. Currently only the user admin is
    supported.

 6. Install the file with the following command:

        install -m 400 -o nobody -g nobody passwords.new  passwords

 7. Restart the appliance with the reboot command.

 8. Re-register the node from the Management Console for which the node
    manager password was changed.

Changing the Condenser Password
+------------------------------

Complete these steps:

 1. Log in as fgn, and then use the su command to switch to the
    superuser.

 2. Stop the Condenser and Node Manager:

        /etc/init.d/fgnpn<TAB> stop

    Press Tab to have the interface complete the command.

 3. Go to the $AVS_HOME/perfnode/passwd directory.

 4. Backup the file named .htpasswd.

 5. Change the password with the following command:

        $AVS_HOME/perfnode/bin/htpasswd -bcm passwords.new fineground <password>

    In the preceding command, passwords.new is the name of the file in
    which the passwords are stored. Currently only the user fineground
    is supported.

 6. Install the file with the following command:

        install -m 400 -o nobody -g nobody passwords.new  .htpasswd

 7. Restart the appliance with the reboot command.

 8. Re-register the node from the Management Console for which the
    Condenser password was changed.

Obtaining Fixed Software
========================

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability.
Prior to deploying software, customers should consult their maintenance
provider or check the software for feature set compatibility and known
issues specific to their environment.

Customers may only install and expect support for the feature
sets they have purchased. By installing, downloading, accessing
or otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to be
bound by the terms of Cisco's software license terms found at
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/prod_warranties_item09186a008088e31f.html,
or as otherwise set forth at Cisco.com Downloads at
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-usingswc.shtml.

Do not contact psirt@xxxxxxxxx or security-alert@xxxxxxxxx for software
upgrades.

Customers with Service Contracts
+-------------------------------

Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through their
regular update channels. For most customers, this means that upgrades
should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's worldwide
website at http://www.cisco.com.

Customers using Third Party Support Organizations
+------------------------------------------------

Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through prior
or existing agreements with third-party support organizations, such
as Cisco Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers should
contact that support organization for guidance and assistance with the
appropriate course of action in regards to this advisory.

The effectiveness of any workaround or fix is dependent on specific
customer situations, such as product mix, network topology, traffic
behavior, and organizational mission. Due to the variety of affected
products and releases, customers should consult with their service
provider or support organization to ensure any applied workaround or fix
is the most appropriate for use in the intended network before it is
deployed.

Customers without Service Contracts
+----------------------------------

Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but do not hold a Cisco service
contract, and customers who purchase through third-party vendors but are
unsuccessful in obtaining fixed software through their point of sale
should acquire upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance
Center (TAC). TAC contacts are as follows.

  * +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
  * +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
  * e-mail: tac@xxxxxxxxx

Customers should have their product serial number available and be
prepared to give the URL of this notice as evidence of entitlement to a
free upgrade. Free upgrades for non-contract customers must be requested
through the TAC.

Refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml
for additional TAC contact information, including localized telephone
numbers, and instructions and e-mail addresses for use in various
languages.

Exploitation and Public Announcements
=====================================

The Cisco PSIRT is not aware of any public announcements or malicious
use of the vulnerability described in this advisory.

This vulnerability was identified through internal testing.

Status of this Notice: Final
============================

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY
ANY KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE
INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS
AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS
DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.

A stand-alone copy or Paraphrase of the text of this document that omits
the distribution URL in the following section is an uncontrolled copy,
and may lack important information or contain factual errors.

Distribution
============

This advisory is posted on Cisco's worldwide website at :

http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080123-avs.shtml

In addition to worldwide web posting, a text version of this notice is
clear-signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP key and is posted to the following
e-mail and Usenet news recipients.

  * cust-security-announce@xxxxxxxxx
  * first-teams@xxxxxxxxx
  * bugtraq@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  * vulnwatch@xxxxxxxxxxxxx
  * cisco@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  * cisco-nsp@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  * full-disclosure@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
  * comp.dcom.sys.cisco@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Future updates of this advisory, if any, will be placed on Cisco's
worldwide website, but may or may not be actively announced on mailing
lists or newsgroups. Users concerned about this problem are encouraged
to check the above URL for any updates.

Revision History
================

+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| Revision 1.0  | 2008-January-23  | Initial public release   |
+-------------------------------------------------------------+

Cisco Security Procedures
=========================

Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities
in Cisco products, obtaining assistance with security
incidents, and registering to receive security information
from Cisco, is available on Cisco's worldwide website at
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_security_vulnerability_policy.html.
This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding
Cisco security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at
http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt.

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All contents are Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights
reserved.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------

Updated: Jan 21, 2008                               Document ID: 100212

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