tl;dr -> Patch your database ASAP with Oracle Critical Patch Update April 2012. Introduction ------------ The following advisory explains a vulnerability I found in 2008 in all versions of Oracle Database server until very recently. The bug is probably available in any Oracle Database version since 1999 (Oracle 8i) to the latest one (Oracle 11g) without the CPU-APR-2012. The bug was reported to Oracle in 2008 so it "only" took them 4 years to fix the vulnerability since reported. The vulnerability I called TNS Poison affects the component called TNS Listener, which is the responsible of connections establishment. To exploit the vulnerability no privilege is needed, just network access to the TNS Listener. The âfeatureâ exploited is enabled by default in all Oracle versions starting with Oracle 8i and ending with Oracle 11g (without CPU-APR-2012). Vulnerability details --------------------- The Oracle TNS Listener component routes connections from the client to the database server depending on the database's instance name the client wants to connect to. These instances are registered at the TNS Listener by using any of the following methods: 1. Local registration. The database's internal process PMON connects via IPC to the TNS Listener and registers the database's instance name in the local listener. This can be changed by altering the system parameter LOCAL_LISTENER (ALTER SYSTEM SET LOCAL_LISTENER='LISTENER_NAME'). 2. Remote registration. The database's internal process PMON connects via TCP (or any other network supported protocol such) to the remote TNS Listener and registers the database's instance name in the remote listener. This behavior can be specified by setting the system parameter REMOTE_LISTENER (ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LISTENER='REMOTE_LISTENER_NAME'). This feature (remote registration) appeared first in Oracle 8i (1999) -this is the reason why I say it's probably vulnerable since this version, however, I didn't tested with such old database servers- and is currently used in Oracle 11g as well as in Oracle9i and 10g. The process of registering an instance is as follows: 1. The client sends a TNS packet of type CONNECT (TNS_TYPE_CONNECT = 1) to the TNS Listener with the following NV string: â Oracle 9i to 11g: (CONNECT_DATA=(COMMAND=SERVICE_REGISTER_NSGR)) â Oracle 8i: (CONNECT_DATA=(COMMAND=SERVICE_REGISTER)) 2. The server answers with a TNS packet of type ACCEPT (TNS_TYPE_ACCEPT = 2). After this, the protocol communication changes a bit (all data will be binary). 3. The client sends a âdata packetâ (TNS_TYPE_DATA = 6) to the TNS listener which contains the following data: 1. Service name to register. 2. Instances to register under the specified service name. 3. Maximum number of client connections allowed. 4. Current number of client connections established. 5. Handler's name. 6. IP address and port to connect to the database. 7. ... 4. If the packet is well formed, the server will answer with another TNS âdata packetâ with the instances registered. After this step, the instances and service names are registered in the remote TNS Listener and any connection attempt to the TNS listener by using the specified SERVICE_NAME or SID (database's instance) will be routed to the remote database server. The connection established to register the remote database must be open, otherwise, the remote TNS listener will consider that the database was crashed and deregisters the Oracle database's instance. According to the Oracle documentation, the âPMONâ process, after this, will communicate with the TNS Listener sending update packets (TNS_TYPE_DATA packets) to specify the load of the database, the number of currently connected users, etc... Every one minute or, as most, every 10 minutes (Higher database load, lower update period). This way, an attacker is able to register any instance in the remote TNS listener and connections to the registered instance will be routed to the attackers machine but, is this interesting? Well, not very âexcitingâ. But, what occurs if an attacker tries to register one already registered instance's name or service name? The TNS listener will consider this newer registered instance name a cluster instance (Oracle RAC, Real Application Clusters) or a fail over instance (Oracle Fail over). When 2 or more database instances are registered with the same name the TNS listener will make load balance between all the registered remote database servers. The latest registered remote database server will receive the first client connection and the second will be routed to the previously registered remote database server. Routing client connections -------------------------- The attack explained in this document can be used to, in example, route legitimate client connections to one attacker controlled machine and forward them to the legitimate database server instance as shown bellow: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ [Legit. Client 1]---------------------------- \ \ \ V [Legit. Client 2]---------------+ [Database Server] | A [Legit. Client 3]---------------+ | | | V | [ Attacker ]----------------+ [Note: Between 50/75% of the connections gets routed through the attacker controlled box] ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The clients connects to the attacker's controlled box which acts as a TNS proxy and forwards all connections to the legitimate database server, as shown in the picture. Not all the connections will be routed through the attacker's box as the TNS Listener will make load balance between all the established instances but, continuously registering the same instance will assure, at least, that the 50% of the connections will be routed through our controlled box. Sniffing connections -------------------- The very first use of the attack explained in this document is obvious: The attacker owns the data as almost all the connections goes through the attacker's box. The attacker can record all the data exchanged between the database server and the client machines and both client and server will be oblivious of the attack. If the attacker just wants to own the target's data, (s)he is done. Game over. Injecting arbitrary commands (Session hijack) --------------------------------------------- As many of the client connections are connected to the legitimate database through our proxy, we are also able to inject commands and/or hijack connections. To inject commands, simply, wait for the customer to send an SQL query/statement, replace the contents of the statement with our desired command and that's all. For session's hijack, simply, close the socket opened between the client and our box and use the established connection channel between the real database server and our machine. You may start sending SQL statements right now. Exploiting the vulnerability ---------------------------- The following sections show how can be launched a successful attack against one Oracle database. The developed POC registers the service name ORCL11 in the TNS Listener and forwards all the connections from the attacker's controlled machine to the legitimate server. Sniffing connections and forwarding client requests --------------------------------------------------- Imagine the following exploit scenario: 1. The database server's IP address is 192.168.1.11 and has registered the instance ORCL11. 2. The legitimate client's address is 192.168.1.12. 3. The attackers machine's address is 192.168.1.25. An attacker will follow these steps: 1. The attacker runs a TCP proxy which forwards all connections to his/her local port 1521 to the real database's server port 1521. 2. Attacker, now, connects to the TNS Listener via TCP/IP and sends the following connect packet: (COMMAND=SERVICE_REGISTER_NSGR). 1. Note that no authentication is required. 3. After receiving the server's answer the attacker sends a packet with the following data: 1. Service to register: ORCL11. 2. Address of the fake database: 192.168.1.25. 3. Load of the database's server: 0. 1. Remember: The lower load, the higher possibility to receive client connections. 4. The attacker's developed exploit enters in a loop and registers the instance every one minute closing the previously opened socket. 1. The last registered database's address is the favorite to route client connections and the attacker wants to receive them all. Proof of concept notes ---------------------- The developed P.O.C. is valid just for 6 characters long service names. However, there is one easy way to change the exploit to make it working against any non 6 characters long instance name: 1. Create a database instance with the same name in a machine under your control. 2. Add an entry like the following to your tnsnames.ora file: listener_name = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.168.1.11)(PORT=1521))) 3. Change the address and port to those of the target. 4. Put an sniffer in your machine listening for any connection at port 1521 (Filter: port 1521). 5. Connect using SQL*Plus to your locally created database as SYSDBA and execute the following commands: 1. $ sqlplus / as sysdba 2. SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LISTENER='LISTENER_NAME'; 3. SQL> ALTER SYSTEM REGISTER; 6. You will see 6 packets in Wireshark (or the sniffer you decided to use). Ignore the 2 first packets. The 3rd packet (TNS_TYPE_DATA) that your configured database sends from your box to the target is the one you are interested in. You may safely ignore all the other packets. 7. Change the contents of the âbufâ variable in the supplied exploit with the contents of this packet. 8. Rerun the exploit against the target. NOTE: You may use this as another attack vector. As your database (which has the same name as the target) is registered in the remote TNS Listener, new connections that goes through the TNS listener you poisoned will be routed to your new database. Funny. TNS Poison POC: Step by step guide ---------------------------------- This is the step by step guide to proof the vulnerability explained in this document by using the supplied POC and the aux module: 1. Open a terminal and run the supplied proxy.py script as shown bellow: $ ./proxy.py âlocalip 192.168.1.25 localport 1521 âremoteip 192.168.1.11 remoteport 1521 2. Open another terminal and run the supplied script tnspoison.py against the target as in the example shown bellow: $ ./tnspoisonv1.py 192.168.1.25 1521 ORCL11 192.168.1.11 1521 Sending initial buffer ... Answer: Accept(2) Sending registration ... '\x04N\x00\x00\x06\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x04D \x08\xff\x03\x01\x00\x124444...' Answer: Data(6) '\x01J\x00\x00\x06\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01@ \x08\xff\x03\x01\x00\x1244444...' Sleeping for 10 seconds... (Ctrl+C to stop)... Now, wait for the new connections to arrive. If you checks the listener using the LSNRCTL tool you will something like the following: $ lsnrctl status LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 220.127.116.11.0 Production Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)) STATUS of the LISTENER ---------------------- Alias LISTENER Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 18.104.22.168.0 Production Start Date 08AUG2008 18:38:08 Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 15 min. 46 sec Trace Level off Security ON: Local OS Authentication SNMP OFF Listener Parameter File /home/joxean/oracle11g/product/11.1.0/db_2/network/admin/listener.ora Listener Log File /home/joxean/oracle11g/diag/tnslsnr/joxeandesktop/ listener/alert/log.xml Listening Endpoints Summary... (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=1521))) Services Summary... Service "ORCL11" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Service "ORCL11XDB" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Service "ORCL11_XPT" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... The command completed successfully $ lsnrctl services LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 22.214.171.124.0 Production Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521)) Services Summary... Service "ORCL11" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready LOCAL SERVER Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready REMOTE SERVER (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=192.168.1.25)(PORT=1521)) Service "ORCL11XDB" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:0 max:972 state:ready DISPATCHER <machine: machine, pid: 19194> (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=localhost)(PORT=42265)) Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "D000" established:0 refused:0 current:2048 max:1024 state:ready DISPATCHER <machine: 192.168.1.25 , pid: 11447> (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.168.1.25)(PORT=57569)) Service "ORCL11_XPT" has 2 instance(s). Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready LOCAL SERVER Instance "ORCL11", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service... Handler(s): "DEDICATED" established:0 refused:0 state:ready REMOTE SERVER (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=192.168.1.25)(PORT=1521)) The command completed successfully Detection --------- The following sections explains how this attack can be somewhat detected at the server side, although no one is perfect (except using OS utilities). Information at the RDBMS Server side ------------------------------------ One may think the following: âHey! At the server side, the DBA will see that the connections are established from untrusted clients, right?â. Well, yes and no. By using operating system tools, as is pretty obvious, the DBA will see that there are many connections from the same origin host but, by using the V$SESSION dynamic view, that is, the Oracle database's supplied mechanism to see the client connections, the DBA will see that the connections are established from trusted clients. But, they aren't. Why the server thinks client connections are coming from trusted sources? The answer is the following: The server doesn't check if the connections comes from a socket created from the trusted client ip addresses, the RDBMS server just checks the user supplied NV strings in the TNS connect packet. A TNS connect packet (TNS_TYPE_CONNECT = 1) is like the following (stripping all the binary characters, of course): (DESCRIPTION=(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=orcl)(CID=(PROGRAM=sqlplus) (HOST=joxeandesktop)(USER=joxean))) (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=192.168.1.11)(PORT=1521))) The highlighted fields are those that are fakeable^Wuser modifiable. So, any connection established through our controlled machine will be shown in the RDBMS server as if they were made directly from trusted clients. TNS Listener's log file ----------------------- Any attempt to register a new database instance or service will be registered in the TNS Listener. A line like the following will be shown: 04AUG2008 21:26:29 * service_register * DATABASENAME * 0 It isn't sufficient/enough information but, this way, we may detect an attempt to register a new instance. No interesting information (like IP address, client port, etc...) is registered so, the TNS listener's log file is not very interesting. This applies just for Oracle 8i, 9i and 10g. For Oracle 11g, however, the interesting information will logged in the alert file (one XML formatted file). In Oracle 11g any attempt to register a new instance will be logged in the alert file with the following information: <msg time='20080807T17: 30:19.436+02:00' org_id='oracle' comp_id='tnslsnr' type='UNKNOWN' level='16' host_id='joxeandesktop' host_addr='127.0.0.1'> <txt>07AUG2008 17:30:19 * service_register * ORCL11 * 0 </txt> </msg> Unfortunately for us^Wthe attacker, the âhost_addrâ field holds the information extracted from the socket, not from the NV strings. Oh... This only applies to Oracle 11g with the newest security features enabled which is, by the way, default behavior. Anyway, an attack detected at the TNS listener's log level is not a detected attack at the RDBMS server level, neither an attack prevention method. Workarounds ----------- Better than using workarounds is to patch the vulnerability. However, in case you're using an outdated version for which no patch is available or if you can't pach for a reason, the following is a list of possible workarounds. Possible workarounds -------------------- There are many possible workarounds. The easier one is to set the following parameter in the listener.ora configuration file: dynamic_registration = off. But, sometimes, you don't want to apply this workaround. In example, if you have an Oracle RAC cluster, all the cluster's instances must be registered in both TNS Listeners so, this workaround is not suitable for Oracle RAC clusters. To apply this workaround with Oracle RAC environments one needs to implement load balancing at the client side, changing all the client's tnsnames.ora configuration file to add the complete list of Oracle RAC nodes. However, there is another possible workaround that, sometimes, is suitable for Oracle RAC environments. Edit the file protocol.ora or, for older versions, sqlnet.ora, at the server side and add the following directives: TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING = YES TCP.INVITED_NODE = (Comma,separated,list,of,ALL,valid,clients, ...) But, anyway, this workaround doesn't prevent valid clients from being used as proxies. Valid clients can still exploit the vulnerability regardless the VALIDNODE_CHECKING directive added as the client is a valid node. Then again, there is one more suitable workaround: If customer bought (and enabled) Oracle Advanced Security feature clients can be configured to use SSL/TLS. Thus, at both client and server side, the following parameters must be changed in protocol.ora or sqlnet.ora: Client side: SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=REQUIRED Server side: SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER=REQUIRED The value of these configuration directives must be REQUIRED and not REQUESTED, as is pretty common, otherwise the attacker can answer to the connection attempt answering that no SSL cipher is supported at the server side (as the attacker's controlled box is for the client the trusted database's server) and the client will reconnect without using SSL. Patch information ----------------- The vulnerability is supposed to be fixed, as reported by Oracle, with Oracle Critical Patch Update April 2012. However, I didn't tested it myself and, to be honest, I'm very tired of the Oracle world so I did not tested it myself. I would not be surprised if the patch doesn't correctly/completely fix the vulnerability. Proof of concept and documentation ---------------------------------- You can download the developed proof of concept and the old documentation -wrote back in 2008- from the following links: Documentation: http://www.joxeankoret.com/download/tnspoison.pdf Proof of concept: http://www.joxeankoret.com/download/tnspoison.zip References ---------- Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory - April 2012: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/security/cpuapr2012-366314.html Oracle Advanced Security Manual: Oracle 11g http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/network.111/b28530/asossl.htm Oracle 10g http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/network.102/b14268/toc.htm Oracle 9i http://downloadwest.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10500_01/network.920/a96573/toc.htm Oracle 8i http://downloaduk.oracle.com/docs/cd/A87860_01/doc/network.817/a85430/toc.htm Oracle 8.1.6 Registration: http://www.orafaq.com/node/30 Configuring Remote Listener Registration: http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10501_01/network.920/a96580/listener.htm#490372 Notes ----- Many of the notes, outputs from terminals, etc... are simply taken from my original notes back from 2008 so, probably, there can be many things outdated. Disclaimer ---------- The information in this advisory and any of its demonstrations is provided "as is" without any warranty of any kind. I am not liable for any direct or indirect damages caused as a result of using the information or demonstrations provided in any part of this advisory. Contact ------- The vulnerability was found by Joxean Koret in 2008. All your listeners are belong to us...
Description: This is a digitally signed message part