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Zoll ePCR v2.6.4 iOS - Multiple Persistent Vulnerabilities
Zoll ePCR v2.6.4 iOS - Multiple Persistent Vulnerabilities
Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):
Common Vulnerability Scoring System:
Product & Service Introduction:
Designed specifically for first responders, the ZOLL ePCR App for iOS helps you capture the most critical patient information quickly and easily.
No more writing vitals or times on a glove or arm - just enter them into ePCR with a couple of taps. Scan drivers licenses, insurance cards, and
medications and eliminate typing completely. With 510(k) clearance, ZOLL ePCR App even uploads 12 leads, vitals, interventions and audio from your
ZOLL X Series monitor defibrillator. The ZOLL ePCR App taps into native iPad features like voice to text for the dictation of narratives and notes.
And since the integration with ZOLL’s RescueNet ePCR last summer, data from the iPad App flows into the RescueNet system for use in state reporting,
QA/QI and the billing.
( Copy of the Vendor Homepage: https://www.zolldata.com/epcrapp/ & https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/zoll-epcr/id444981159 )
Abstract Advisory Information:
The vulnerability laboratory core research team discovered multiple application-side input validation vulnerabilities in the Zoll GmbH ePCR v2.6.4 mobile iOS application.
Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
2016-08-01: Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)
ZOLL GmbH (ZOLL Data Systems Inc)
Product: ePCR - Mobile iOS (Web-Application) 2.6.4
Technical Details & Description:
Multiple persistent input validation web vulnerabilities has been discovered in the official Zoll GmbH ePCR v2.6.4 mobile iOS application.
The vulnerability allows local or remote attackers to inject own malicious script codes on the application-side of the affected vulnerable module.
The vulnerability is located in the `firstname` and `lastname` input parameters of the `Adresse` and `Patientendaten` modules. Local attackers are
able to inject own malicious script codes to the vulnerable values to compromise the affected `Reports` and `Share by Email` modules. The injection
point of the vulnerability are the vulnerable marked input fields and the execution point occurs in the `Report Drucken (Print Report)` on generate
of the report and in the `Email Versenden (Send Email)` module. Attacker are able to share the malicious generated reports in the complete menu and
can as well to send spoofed malicious emails via the local app.
The security risk of the application-side vulnerability is estimated as medium with a cvss (common vulnerability scoring system) count of 3.6.
Exploitation of the persistent web vulnerability requires a low privileged ios device account with restricted access and without user interaction.
Successful exploitation of the vulnerabilities results in persistent phishing mails, session hijacking, persistent external redirect to malicious
sources and application-side manipulation of affected or connected module context.
[+] Patientendaten (Patient Information)
[+] Vorname (Firstname)
[+] Nachname (Lastname)
[+] Adresse (Address)
[+] Report Drucken (Print Report)
[+] Email Versenden (Send Email)
Proof of Concept (PoC):
The vulnerability can be exploited by local attackers with a low privileged ios device account or restricted access and with low user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.
Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability ...
1. Install the vulnerable Zoll ePCR iOS mobile application
2. Open the software
3. Add a new client with malicious script code in the address or first- & lastname input parameters
4. Save the entry
5. Open the reports module (last menu entry)
6. Now the payload directly executes in the generated context via java
7. Process to share the context by email with the same effect to the client
8. Successful reproduce of the persistent vulnerabilities!
Solution - Fix & Patch:
The vulnerability can be patched by a secure parse and encode of the vulnerable name input fields.
Restrict the input fields and disallow the usage of special chars or script code tags to prevent persistent injection attacks.
Encode and parse in the print or email mobule with the reports the inner app output context to prevent further attacks.
Disallow to convert the email with html or script code context to prevent the email spoofing issue with malicious persistent context.
The security risk of the application-side input validation web vulnerabilities in the mobile web-application are estimated as medium. (CVSS 3.5)
Credits & Authors:
Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] - Benjamin Kunz Mejri (http://www.vulnerability-lab.com/show.php?user=Benjamin%20K.M.)
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