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[ISN] ITL Bulletin for January 2009



Forwarded from: Elizabeth Lennon <elizabeth.lennon (at) nist.gov>

ITL BULLETIN FOR JANUARY 2009

SECURITY OF CELL PHONES AND PDAS
 
Shirley Radack, Editor
Computer Security Division
Information Technology Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
U.S. Department of Commerce

 
Our nation's workforce is highly mobile today, and very dependent on 
cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) to carry out 
work-related functions while on the move. Cell phones and PDAs are 
small, relatively inexpensive, and convenient tools for many operations: 
voice calls, simple text messages, personal information management 
(PIM), such as phonebook, calendar, and notepad, and other functions 
that might normally be done at a desktop computer. It is possible to 
send and receive electronic mail, browse the Web, store and modify 
documents, deliver presentations, and access data remotely. Mobile 
handheld devices can carry out other useful functions if they are 
equipped with specialized built-in hardware, such as cameras, Global 
Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and reduced-size removable-media 
card slots. These devices use a variety of wireless interfaces, 
including infrared, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Bluetooth, and several 
types of cellular interfaces.

The Information Technology Laboratory of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology (NIST) recently issued a new publication that 
focuses on the security of cell phones and PDAs. The guide provides 
updated information to organizations about the issues they should 
consider in protecting the wireless handheld devices that their workers 
find indispensible.

 

NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-124, Guidelines on Cell Phone and PDA 
Security: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology

NIST SP 800-124, Guidelines on Cell Phone and PDA Security, written by 
Wayne Jansen and Karen Scarfone of NIST, was issued in October 2008. The 
security of cell phones and PDAs had previously been discussed in NIST 
SP 800-48, Wireless Network Security, 802.11, Bluetooth, and Handheld 
Devices, which also covered security issues in wireless local area 
networks (WLANs) based on Institute of Electrical and Electronics 
Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards, and in networks based on Bluetooth 
specifications.  Bluetooth, which was developed by an industry 
consortium, is often used by cell phones, and provides three basic 
security services: authenticating the identity of communicating devices, 
protecting the confidentiality of information, and controlling access to 
resources by authorized devices.

The new guidelines discuss the technical and physical characteristics of 
cell phones and PDAs, the operating systems and network communications 
standards that they employ, and the applications that they support. A 
section of the publication describes the security threats to cell phones 
and PDAs. Another section of the guide deals with the safeguards that 
organizations can apply to reduce the risks.

NIST SP 800-124 contains an extensive list of references to both 
in-print and online sources of information about cell phone and PDA 
security. The appendices include a glossary of the technical terms 
employed in the publication and an acronym list. NIST SP 800-124 is 
available from the NIST Web site:

http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsSPs.html.


Cell Phones and PDAs: Capabilities and Operations

Cell phones are compact and highly mobile devices that contain a 
microprocessor, memory components, a radio module, a digital signal 
processor, and a microphone and speaker for voice communications. Many 
cell phones support a variety of applications including telephone calls, 
text messaging, a phone book, and calendar; newer devices often have the 
ability to synchronize data with a desktop computer, to connect to the 
Internet, and to access Web sites. They may also have enhanced 
capabilities such as a camera, applications for reviewing electronic 
documents, an expanded keyboard, and protocols for the exchange of 
graphics and audio data.

Different operating systems (OSs) and communications protocols are used 
for cell phone operations. Cell phone manufacturers may support several 
different OS platforms, including proprietary systems. Smart phones 
usually use one of the following: Palm OS, Windows Mobile (phone 
edition), Research in Motion (RIM) OS, Symbian OS, iPhone OS, and Linux. 
These advanced systems feature multitasking functions and support Java 
applications.

Cell phones communicate over cellular networks that divide a large 
geographical service area into smaller areas of coverage. Different 
standards are used in digital cellular networks in the United States, 
including Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global System for Mobile 
(GSM) communications networks, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and 
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN). iDEN networks use a 
proprietary protocol designed by Motorola, while the others follow 
standardized open protocols. A digital version of the original analog 
standard for cellular telephone phone service, called Digital Advanced 
Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS), is used also. These different 
communications approaches are not compatible with each other.

PDAs are compact, mobile, battery-powered devices that are similar to 
handheld personal computers, but that store data in solid-state memory 
rather than on a hard disk. PDAs can synchronize data with a desktop 
computer, and reconcile and replicate data between the two devices. They 
contain a microprocessor, memory units, hardware keys and interfaces, 
and a touch-sensitive display screen. The latest PDAs contain slots that 
support memory cards and peripherals, such as a digital camera or 
wireless communications capabilities. Wireless communications, such as 
Infrared Data Association (IrDA), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi, may also be 
built into the device.

The operating system (OS) of the PDA is held in Read Only Memory (ROM), 
including Flash ROM, which can be erased and reprogrammed electronically 
with OS updates or a different OS. Flash ROM may also be used to store 
critical user data and applications. Random Access Memory (RAM), which 
normally contains user data, is kept active by batteries which can fail, 
causing all information to be lost. Devices may provide additional 
functionality through expansion capabilities such as input/output (I/O) 
and memory card slots, device expansion sleeves, and external hardware 
interfaces.

Two widely used families of PDA devices are Microsoft Windows Mobile 
(formerly Pocket PC) and Palm OS. Some Linux-based PDAs are also 
manufactured. All devices support a set of basic PIM applications, 
including contact information, calendar, email, and task management. 
Most PDAs can be used to communicate wirelessly, review electronic 
documents, and access Web sites. Third-party applications can be 
developed and installed using an available Software Development Kit 
(SDK) or Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

 

General Development Trends

Handheld devices have added features and functionality over the past few 
years. The screens of cell phones have been improved, and cameras are 
often built in. Available services include text messaging, chat 
messaging, multimedia messaging, instant messaging, and electronic mail. 
Continued development of handheld devices is expected to lead to 
capabilities for more powerful and higher-speed communications, similar 
to the power and functionality of a full desktop computer. These 
improvements will help to increase productivity, turning cell phones 
into extensive data reservoirs capable of holding a broad range of 
personal and organizational information.

Noncellular PDAs are becoming less popular as smart phones now provide 
the functionality of PDAs and deliver services at high communications 
speeds. Cell phones can access the Internet, allowing users to browse 
Web sites, send electronic mail, and engage in peer-to-peer services. 
Cell phones and PDA devices with built-in Wi-Fi communications may be 
able to use a nearby access point for Voice over Internet Protocol 
(VoIP) telephony, as either a backup to cellular service or a primary 
means of communication. Future communications are expected to be 
increasingly Internet-based and multimedia-oriented.

Current models of phones can be precisely located through the Global 
Positioning System (GPS), Assisted-GPS (A-GPS), or other technologies 
for improving responses to 911 calls. This capability enables the 
delivery of information about location-based services to subscribers. 
Other long-term developments may involve the use of phones to hold 
credit card or other financial information needed for conducting 
electronic transactions, to authenticate the phone user for remote 
access to systems, and to provide information to the user about nearby 
buildings and historic sites.
 

Security Concerns

The widespread use of handheld devices creates new security risks for an 
organization. The devices and their memory cards may hold sensitive 
organizational and personal information, including information about 
product announcements, financial statements, or litigation issues. 
Information such as calendar and phonebook entries, passwords for online 
accounts, electronic documents, and audio and video media are also 
potential items of interest to an attacker. The remote resources 
accessed by a device through its wireless or wired communications 
capabilities may also be at risk, including cell phone services, voice 
mail and email repositories, and applications and data on corporate 
networks.

Attackers can achieve physical control of a device by overcoming the 
security mechanisms and gaining access to the contents of the device. 
Wireless interfaces such as cellular and Bluetooth provide additional 
avenues of exploitation. Financial losses can occur when subscription 
services that charge based on usage, such as number of text messages, 
toll numbers, and unit transmission charges, are used fraudulently. 
Attackers can use the devices to deliver malware through subscription 
services as well as through non-subscription wireless interfaces such as 
Bluetooth.

 

Security threats to mobile handheld devices include the following:

Loss or theft of cell phones and PDAs are issues because they are small 
and are often used outside the office. Handheld devices are easier to 
misplace or to be stolen than are laptop or notebook computers. With 
physical control, it is relatively easy for attackers to gain access to 
the information that the handheld devices store or are able to access 
remotely.

Unauthorized access to devices and their contents may be achieved by 
forging or guessing authentication credentials, such as a PIN or 
password, or bypassing the authentication mechanism entirely. Users 
often do not employ the security mechanisms built into a device, or they 
may apply settings that can be easily determined or bypassed.

Communications networks, desktop synchronization, and tainted storage 
media can be used to deliver malware to handheld devices. Malware is 
often disguised as a game, device patch, utility, or other useful 
third-party application available for download. Once installed, malware 
can initiate a wide range of attacks and spread itself onto other 
devices.

Similar to desktop computers, cell phones and PDAs are subject to spam, 
including text messages and voice mail, in addition to electronic mail. 
Besides the inconvenience of deleting spam, charges may apply for the 
unauthorized inbound activity. Spam can also be used for phishing 
attempts.

Electronic eavesdropping on phone calls, messages, and other wirelessly 
transmitted information is possible through various techniques. 
Installing spy software on a device to collect and forward data 
elsewhere, including conversations captured via a built-in microphone, 
is perhaps the most direct means, but other components of a 
communications network, including the airwaves, are possible avenues for 
exploitation.

Electronic tracking services allow the location of registered cell 
phones to be known and monitored. This tracking can be done openly for 
legitimate purposes, but it may also take place surreptitiously.

It is possible to create a clone of certain phones that can masquerade 
as the original.  Used in the past with analog phones, cloning is not as 
prevalent today with the rise of digital networks, but some early 
generation digital equipment has been shown to be vulnerable to cloning.

Server-resident content, such as electronic mail maintained for a user 
by a network carrier as a convenience, may expose sensitive information 
through vulnerabilities that exist at the server.

To date, incidents from malware and other identified threats involving 
handheld devices have been limited when compared with those involving 
desktop computers. One factor is that there is no single dominant 
operating system for handheld devices, fragmenting the number of 
potential homogeneous targets. Cellular network carriers have also 
favored a closed system approach in which they exerted control over 
devices and applications, as well as their networks. Nevertheless, an 
increasing amount of mobile malware has been reported over the past 
several years, which raises concerns for the future, especially when a 
more open system environment for cellular handheld devices is being 
established. An open environment would facilitate application 
development and allow flexibility in choosing devices and applications 
from many sources, but it would also expedite malware development and 
potentially provide more attractive targets to attack.

 

NIST Recommendations for Improving the Security of Cell Phones and PDAs

Many organizations and users have found that wireless communications 
devices are convenient, flexible, and easy to use. The security issues 
for these devices are significant, and many common safeguards available 
for desktop and networked computers are generally not readily available 
for handheld devices. Devices issued by the organization to staff 
members may be easier to administer than personally owned devices since 
the characteristics of the organization's devices are known, their 
configuration can be centrally managed, and controls can be installed to 
improve security and compel compliance with policy.

 
NIST recommends that organizations apply the following safeguards to 
protect their handheld devices:


Plan for and address the security aspects of organization-issued cell 
phones and PDAs.

Security issues are much more difficult to address when the deployment 
and implementation phases of systems are under way; security should be 
considered at the early stages of planning. While many of the security 
issues in protecting cell phones and PDAs are similar to protecting 
desktop computers, there are also significant differences. Handheld 
devices are generally treated more as fixed appliances with a limited 
set of functions than as general-purpose desktop systems with the 
capability for expansion. Operating system upgrades and patches are 
applied far less frequently than with desktop computers; changes to 
firmware can be more daunting to carry out and may have more serious 
consequences, such as irreversibility and inoperability. Augmenting a 
device with defenses against malware and other forms of attack is an 
important consideration in planning; another consideration is the 
centralization of security management for mobile devices.

Organizations are more likely to make decisions about configuring mobile 
handheld devices securely and consistently when they develop and follow 
a well-designed plan for implementation. Developing such a plan helps to 
identify critical issues and guides administrators in making trade-off 
decisions between usability, performance, and risk.  Existing system 
contingency, continuity of operations, and disaster recovery plans 
should also be extended to include the mobile handheld devices that have 
been issued by the organization.

Employ appropriate security management practices and controls over 
handheld devices.

Appropriate management practices are essential to operating and 
maintaining a secure infrastructure that incorporates cell phones and 
PDAs. Security practices entail the identification of an organization's 
information system assets and the development, documentation, and 
implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that 
help to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of 
information system resources. The following steps will help to ensure 
the security of the infrastructure:

* Develop an organization-wide security policy for mobile handheld 
  devices.

* Analyze risks to identify vulnerabilities and threats, and assess 
  their likelihood of success and potential damage. Then take steps to 
  manage assessed risks by reducing them to an acceptable level and 
  maintaining that level of risk.

* Conduct security awareness and training activities to assure that 
  staff members are familiar with security policies and procedures.

* Configuration control and management should be applied to ensure that 
  systems are protected against the introduction of improper 
  modifications before, during, and after system deployment.

* Certify and accredit systems. Security certification of an information 
  technology system involves an analysis of the system to determine how 
  well it meets all of the organization's nontechnical and technical 
  security requirements. The accreditation process involves management 
  acceptance that the system meets the organization's security 
  requirements.

 
Ensure that handheld devices are deployed, configured, and managed to 
meet the organization's security requirements and objectives.

Many security issues can be avoided if the devices are configured 
appropriately. Organizations should employ only the required 
capabilities and services on mobile devices and should eliminate known 
vulnerabilities through the application of patches, upgrades, and 
additional safeguards. The default system and application settings on a 
device may emphasize features, functions, and ease of use, at the 
expense of security.  Administrators should configure devices in 
accordance with their organization's security requirements and 
reconfigure the devices as those requirements change. Security 
configuration guides or checklists can assist administrators in securing 
systems consistently and efficiently. The following steps will bolster 
the security of cell phones and PDAs:


* Apply available critical patches and upgrades to the operating system.

 
* Eliminate or disable unnecessary services and applications.

 
* Install and configure additional applications that are needed.


* Configure user authentication and access controls.

 
* Configure resource controls.

 
* Install and configure additional security controls that are required, 
  including content encryption, remote content erasure, firewall, 
  antivirus, intrusion detection, antispam, and virtual private network 
  (VPN) software.


* Perform security testing.


* Conduct an ongoing process to maintain the security of handheld 
  devices throughout their life cycle.


Maintaining handheld device security requires constant effort, 
sufficient resources, and vigilance from an organization. To maintain 
the security of a handheld device, organizations should:

* Instruct users about procedures to follow and precautions to take, 
  including the following items:

 

Maintaining physical control of the device;

Reducing exposure of sensitive data;

Backing up data frequently;

Employing user authentication, content encryption, and other available 
security facilities;

Enabling noncellular wireless interfaces only when needed;

Recognizing and avoiding actions that are questionable;

Reporting and deactivating compromised devices;

Minimizing functionality; and

Employing additional software to prevent and detect attacks.

* Enable, obtain, and analyze device log files for compliance.

* Establish and follow procedures for recovering from compromise.

* Test and apply critical patches and updates in a timely manner.

* Evaluate device security periodically.

Centralized security management of organization-issued devices 
simplifies the configuration control and management processes needed to 
ensure compliance with the organization's security policy. A number of 
products provide centralized security management and oversight of cell 
phones and PDAs through the network infrastructure.  The depth and 
breadth of capabilities that can be controlled vary among products. The 
following items are some common examples:

 

      Device registration;

      Installation of client software, policy rules, and control settings;

      Controls over password length and composition, number of entry attempts, etc.;

      Remote password reset;

      Remote erasure or locking of the device;

      Controls to restrict application downloads, access, and use;

      Controls over infrared, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and other means of communication;

      Controls to restrict camera, microphone, and removable media use;

      Controls over device content and removable media encryption;

Controls over VPN, firewall, antivirus, intrusion detection, and antispam components;

      Remote update of client software, policy rules, and control settings;

      Remote diagnostics and auditing;

      Device compliance status reporting; and

      Denial of services to noncompliant or unregistered devices.

 

More Information

For information about NIST standards and guidelines, as well as other 
security-related publications that help organizations protect their cell 
phones and PDAs, see NIST's Web page: 
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/index.html.


Disclaimer

Any mention of commercial products or reference to commercial 
organizations is for information only; it does not imply recommendation 
or endorsement by NIST, nor does it imply that the products mentioned 
are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

 
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